Thanks to Einstein we know that mass is directly related to the speed of light and therefore any increase in the speed of light requires an inverse-squared amount of mass reduction to balance the energy equation (since energy cannot be created nor destroyed). I'm down with that. With less mass gravity then becomes magnitudes of exponentiality weaker and everything falls apart.
So we can be pretty certain that light's speed hasn't changed, not over the long term, not even as a "blip". I don't think anyone can argue with this, certainly not me.
But that leaves us with the problem of a universe which has expanded more than twice the amount it should have been able to. The best attempt at an explanation I've had so far have revolved around violation of the Theory of Relativity: "The light's kind of surfing along with the expansion, so moving at its own speed plus that of the expanding time-space."
BZZT! Fail. If I'm traveling in a spaceship at 0.9999999999c (ignoring the fact that the gravity would crush me to near-singularity), if I switch on a flashlight, relative to an observer the light's moving away from that observer at a speed only 0.000000000001% faster than I am. My spacecraft's speed isn't added to the light. Taking that further, if I could manage to exceed the speed of light by 4ft/sec (walking speed) and I flipped on the headlights, I couldn't notice any change in front of me nor could I even see the trail of light behind me since it'll never catch up to me.
Light's speed in a vacuum is the ultimate speed limit and it can't be changed. Since nothing can move faster than it how can the universe have expanded to its current dimensions?
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